Solar Flare of July 19, 2012 – II

Video Image collage of the M7-class solar flare, of July 19, 2012
on solar spot area AR 1520

The video also shows a sequence of images registered from, July 17, 2012, to July 20, 2012

Before you view the video, lets first learn a little about what you will see, and also be we start, lets give a quick credit to where credit is due.  I want to immensely thank those who built this video and composites.  The  images are of several channels of the AI, which is an instrument on board NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).   Please join me in thanking NASA, 8cruncher8 channel at You Tube, and NASA Marshal Space Flight Center-Solar Physics, and NASA’s team of Astrophycisist and Heliophysicists for the work on this video and for providing dependable, verifiable and  impeccable information for all who wants to learn more about solar science.

Having said that, lets proceed.  Please read this short article first before viewing the video at the end of this page.  Then Tweet or Pin it at Pinterest.

  1. Red: 304 Å -Prominences and Chromosphere
  2. Green: 171 Å – Mostly Magnetic Flux Lines
  3. Blue: 211 Å – Mostly Corona

1) Red – 304 Å  – Prominences and Chromosphere –
The Chromosphere:  The name Chromosphere means color.  It is a  reddish, gaseous layer immediately above the photosphere and just below the solar transition region of our sun, as well as other stars.

The density of the chromosphere is only 10–4 times of that of  photosphere of the sun, and only 10–8 times of the density of the atmosphere of Earth, which makes the chromosphere invisible to most solar observing instruments on Earth, due to the brightness of the photosphere.

The density of the chromosphere decreases logarithmically  relative to its distance from the center of the sun;  from 1017 particles per cubic cm.,  or approximately 2 × 10–4 kg/m3, to just under 1.6 × 10–11 kg/m3 particles, at the outer boundary.  Which means the chromosphere is not very dense.

In the Chromosphere, the temperature rises from 6000°C to nearly 20,000°C,  and hydrogen emits H-alpha rays, which is the red color light or the sun.

This red color light emission can be seen during total solar eclipses, and it is due to the temperature in that region of the suns atmosphere to gradually decrease from  from 6,000 K, at  inner boundary,  to about approximately 3,800 K, at the ream of the Chromosphere, before it gradually increases again to 35,000 K, at the outer boundary, where the chromosphere joins the transition layer of the corona.

The chromosphere is the second of the three main layers of the Sun’s atmosphere, roughly 2,000 kilometers deep.

These are, the elements of the chromospheric network of the sun’s magnetic fields, such as bright plage around sunspots.  Plage, means beach in French, and are bright areas around sunspots best seeing with a spectrograph.

Other elements of the chromosphere network are dark filaments (dark lines) seen across the heliosphere, and prominence.  Prominences are dense clouds of solar plasma suspended above the surface of the Sun the magnetic field loops.  Prominences and filaments are one and the same, except prominences are often seen projecting  above the limb, which is the edge of the solar disk.  Prominences can be seen as a bulging  loop hundreds of thousands of miles into space, but are held above the sun by strong magnetic fields that can last for months.  Most prominences erupt eventually, sending  enormous amounts of solar plasma into space.

The chromosphere is a site of great activity on the sun, such as solar flare intensity, prominence and filament eruptions, and the flow of plasma material in post-flare loops can be observed within a few minutes from occurrence , generally 8 minutes, the time it takes light to travel 93 millions miles, from the sun to the earth.

A spectrograph or a filter that isolates the H-alpha emission is used to observe the sun, many other details can be seen on the  surface of the sun as well with an spectrograph, including details in the Chromosphere network.

The chromosphere can also be visible in the violet solar spectrum by ionized calcium, Ca II instruments, at a wavelength of 393.4 nanometers (the Calcium K-line).

Chromosphere emissions are also seen in other solar order of stars providing us very important information about the minima and maxima phases of those stars, as well.

2) Green: 171 Å- Mostly Magnetic Flux Lines
Magnetic flux is usually measured with an instrument called Fluxmeter.  This instrument contains coils and electronics dives that evaluate the change of voltage when calculating the magnetic flux of energy in an object or a celestial sphere.  The intensity of the magnetic flux is described as a vector field.  A point in space, as as well in time, is linked with a vector  which determines how much force a moving electrical charge would experience at that particular  point, in particular the electromagnetism  and the  electromagnetic fields which that movement creates.   A vector is a measurement of direction as well as magnitude, at determining the position of one point in space relative to another.  This is sometimes referred to as the  Lorentz force, which is commonly attributed to Oliver Heaviside  (1889), although it has been suggest  this theory originated with James Clerk Maxwell in (1865), and etc.  To learn more about magnetic flux, and how to calculate it visit Wikipedia.

3. Blue: 211 Å  –  Mostly Corona
Corona is a Latin word meaning crown.  It is the outer atmosphere of the sun.  It is the part of the atmosphere of the sun composed of plasma, visible from Earth as a white light surrounding the sun. Streamers, plumes, and loops, are all formed in the corona.  These changes, are different at each eclipse.  And the shape of the corona, too, changes changes during sun spot activities.

 
The corona extends millions of kilomenters  into space, and can be observed during solar eclipses or with the aid of a Coronograph instrument.

In the video below, the inlay in the upper right is a red, green, and blue (RGB) color composite, using the three wavelengths 211, 335, and 94, and exhibits the corona temperatures between 2 and 6 million Kelvins.

Video and research information:  CREDIT:  NASA/SDO, the AIA, EVE, and HMI science teams, and the NASA Marshal Space Flight  Center.  Thank you very much for providing all the video and data!

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